lebanese sunni surnames

Afterward, al-Jazzar defeated and killed Nassif and 470 of his men in battle, proceeding to conquer Shia-held fortress towns and eliminate the Shia sheikhs of Jabal Amel. "[4], Genealogical DNA testing has shown that 27,7% of Lebanese Muslims (non-Druze) belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup J1. shia surnames in pakistan. (The text on Shiite mosques, for example, will mention the imams.) The boys' school was known as al-Ja'fariyya, and was able to continue despite financial difficulties. [36], During the 1920s and 1930s, educational institutions became places for different religious communities to construct nationalist and sectarian modes of identification. Ansari is an arabic word which the means ' Those Who Support '. Tripoli was subject to a 4-year long siege which culminated with its fall in 1109. Lebanon I. Overview Weakened by deepening inter- and intra-communal rifts, the Lebanese state has gradually abandoned its primary role in governance and as manager of representative politics and relies increasingly on security measures to maintain stability and the political status quo. [38] Many Christian refugees were reportedly given protection by the Shiites in Chyah and Jabal Amel, where they settled in a plethora of villages including Rmaich and Tebnine. There are Shiite and Sunni regions and neighborhoods in Iraq, and members of small communities may know the religious affiliations of their neighbors. In order to bring their demands (mulabiyya) to the attention of the French authorities, petitions were signed and presented to the French High Commissioner and the Service de l'Instruction Publique. Alternative spelling. What does 222 mean in Bible? Once far more numerous and widespread in many areas now part of Lebanon, the Isma'ili population has largely vanished over time. [74] More recently, in 2022 the CIA World Factbook estimated that Shia Muslims constitute 31.2%[1] of Lebanon's population.[76][1]. [44] This institution since 1920 headquartered in Beirut- oversaw every educational policy regarding public and private school in the mandate territories. You can subscribe to "The Monthly" magazine by calling : 01-983008/9. Only Shiites would whip themselves with chains on the day of Ashura, to commemorate the murder of Ali and Hussein. [12], The spread of Shia Islam in Lebanon and the Levant was a complex, multi-layered process throughout history. 27 febrero, 2023 . [28] In 1686, a joint Hamada-Harfush force defeated and drove Ottoman forces of Sidon and Tripoli and their allies out of Keserwan, who had encamped in the region earlier, leaving Jbeil susceptible to attack. In addition to their different narrative of Islam, the Ottomans suspected Shias of being a stalking horse for the Safavids, and often derogatorily referred to them as Qizilbash. [28] In 1771 and 1781, they also gave refuge to the displaced Shiites from Mount Lebanon and Jabal Amel who were fleeing the brutality of the Shihabis and Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar. Home. But Sunni bitterness toward Hezbollah runs deeper. 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Mustafa (Arabic: , romanized: Muaf) is one of the names of Muhammad, and the name means "chosen, selected, appointed, preferred", used as an Arabic given name and surname. [28], Zahir's military potential was significantly boosted by the backing of 10,000 Shiite fighters, noted by a French consul as "excellent fighters",[28] who aided him against the sieges and assaults of the governors of Damascus, and participated in fifteen subsequent campaigns against his foes. It is the name of the founder of Islam, and extremely common throughout the Muslim religion. At some times, the Shiites also fought the Druze, who at Jbaa attacked and wounded their religious chief who was sheltering a Christian refugee, and proceeded to loot his home. [36] Following the Syrian National Congress in 2 July 1919, when Shiites restated their support for Syrian unity, Maronites increased their armed activities against the Shiites. [13], With the arrival of the First Crusade, Tripoli and Tyre initially resisted crusaders and paid tribute to prevent further conflict, which only proved temporary. Nassif became Sheikh around 1749 with the blooming of the cotton industry in Jabal Amel, and was surrounded by the Shihabis and Zahir al-Umar. Other Muslim rulers soon acted to crush this powerful heretical movement. Politicians, Diplomats, and Public Servants, the Lebanese National Bloc political party, International Religious Freedom Report 2008, Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events, "Lebanon's Sheikhs Take on Assad and Hezbollah", Minorities in the Middle East: a history of struggle and self-expression, Syria's war ignites sectarian strife in Lebanon, "2012 Report on International Religious Freedom - Lebanon", "Contemporary distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lebanese_Sunni_Muslims&oldid=1142332895, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 1 March 2023, at 20:43. During the Iron Age, the Bekaa was dominated by the Aramaeans, who formed kingdoms nearby in Damascus and Hamath, and established the kingdom of Aram-Zobah where Hazael might have been born, and was later also settled by Itureans, who were likely Arabs themselves. [41] From 1385, much of Jabal Amel and Safed was ruled by the Shia Bechara family, the descendants of Husam ad-Din Bechara. Druze constitute 5.2% of the modern population of Lebanon and still have a strong demographic presence in their traditional regions within the country to this day.[63]. [19], Further east in the Bekaa valley, sources are scarce and generally uninformative. Not to be confused with, E. G. Hardy, Roman Laws and Charters, New Jersey 2005, p.95, "March for secularism; religious laws are archaic", "Fadlallah Charges Every Sect in Lebanon Except his Own Wants to Dominate the Country", "Aspects of Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Lebanon", The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, "Education and Reconfiguring Lebanese Shii Muslims into the Nation-State during the French Mandate, 192043", Completing The Task Of Evicting Israel From Lebanon, "Report: Hizbullah Training Shiite Syrians to Defend Villages against Rebels Naharnet", "Pressures in Syria affect Alawites in Lebanon The National", "Lebanon: Displaced Allawis find little relief in impoverished north", "Lebanon: Displaced families struggle on both sides of sectarian divide", "Syrian violence finds its echo in Lebanon", "Isma'ili Da'wa and Politics in Fatimid Egypt", "International Religious Freedom Report for 2011", "Lebanon 2008 2009: Towards a Citizen's State", "War with Israel interrupts rare industrial success story", "2012 Report on International Religious Freedom Lebanon", "Contemporary distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups", "A Genetic History of the Near East from an aDNA Time Course Sampling Eight Points in the Past 4,000 Years", Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events, "Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon", "Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, Northern Levant, and Southern Caucasus", "Continuity and Admixture in the Last Five Millennia of Levantine History from Ancient Canaanite and Present-Day Lebanese Genome Sequences", The Shia Rulers of Banu Ammar, Banu Mardas and the Mazidi, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lebanese_Shia_Muslims&oldid=1142608348, This page was last edited on 3 March 2023, at 10:57. As many as four people are believed to have been killed. . The Ottomans were determined to stop these contacts, taking further steps and appointing Fakhreddine to the sanjak of Sidon in 1590. Maronites, Rum Christians, Protestant Christians etc. They also have a notable presence in Zahl, Southern Lebanon, Marjaayoun and Chebaa. [13] Qarmatian influence may have also played a role when the latter gained foothold in neighboring Homs before the Abbasids kicked them out in 903. Baalbek in the 18th century was really under the control of the Metawali, which also refers to the Shia Twelvers. It is ironic that Lebanon's Sunni population, long ascendant in that region and identified with the governing powers since the days of the Umayyads (c. 661 C.E.) Lebanese Shia Muslims (Arabic: ), historically known as matwila (Arabic: , plural of mutawlin[2] ([Lebanese pronounced as metouali[3]]) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which plays a major role along Lebanon's main Sunni, Maronite and Druze sects. Unsuccessful in the imperial capital of Cairo, they began discreetly proselytising around the year 1017 among certain Arab tribes in the Levant. The Christians (Nasara) are your brethren in the country and in destiny. Post author: Post published: junho 10, 2022 Post category: cypress if element is visible Post comments: are baby wipes fsa eligible 2021 are baby wipes fsa eligible 2021 lebanese sunni surnamesmichelle fleury ancestry. And when a popular Sunni figure is strangely abducted and arrested by Lebanon's General Security Service an organization linked to the Hezbollah militia that, in turn, is linked to the Syrian government the Alawites become the whipping boys. The Twelver Shia Salih ibn Mirdas rose against the Fatimids in a similar manner, and by 1025 managed to conquer most of Syria, western Iraq and parts of Lebanon. [5], The Sunnis of Lebanon have close ties with Saudi Arabia, who supports them financially. Members of the family also served as supervisors of the Mamuk army in Damascus. [13] Al-Yunini identifies other notable Shia individuals from Baalbek in this period, including Muhammad bin Abi al-Hasan (11981278) from Baalbek, a battle-hardened fris and amir of 20 soldiers who fought the crusaders and Mongols; and Muhammad bin Muwaffaq al-Tanukhi (fl. The French had dispersed the Shiite leaders and thousands of peasants who feared reprisals, and the high fines imposed on them caused financial misery. *. Most Common Lebanese Surnames & Meanings Most Common Last Names In Lebanon Forebears knows about 75,423 unique surnames in Lebanon and there are 74 people per name. by | Feb 25, 2023 | british canoeing star awards | call kingsport times news | Feb 25, 2023 | british canoeing star awards | call kingsport times news Sheikh Ahmad Rifai was the imam of a . The term 'mutawili' is also the name of a trustee in Islamic waqf-system. In 1767, Zahir attempted to extend his authority to Shiite villages, but was defeated in battle and captured, eventually entering into an alliance with Nassif and the Shiites. During this period of chaos, also several predominantly Christian villages in the region were attacked due to the armed support they received from the French and their perceived acceptance of French mandatory rule, including Ain Ebel. The Levant fell to the Ottomans in 1516, bringing about a new period in the region. Though little is known about Husam ad-Din's life, he was apparently a close friend of Saladin's son Al-Afdal who later converted to Shia Islam. Ultra -religious Sunnis and Shiites are much more easily distinguished. For example, discussions about the mourning of the martyrdom of Imam Husain during Ashura, which was a clandestine affair before the 1920s and 1930s, led to its transformation into a public ceremony.[50]. Between 1187 and 1291, the Shiites of Jabal Amel were divided between the newly autonomous hills and a coast still subject to the Franks. [24], By the early 14th century, Jabal Amel was becoming the Twelver Shia center of the Levant. [17] Sunni Muslims constitute 27% of Lebanon's population, according to a 2012 estimate. [21][22] Shias in the Bekaa valley remained under Muslim rule and were on good terms with Bahramshah (11821230), who welcomed a prominent Shia scholar from Homs in the city in 1210s, a gesture that "gave morale to the Shiites living in the nahiyah (of Baalbek)". Isma'ili Shi'ism also differs doctrinally from Imami Shi'ism, having beliefs and practices that are more esoteric and maintaining seven pillars of faith rather than five pillars and ten ancillary precepts. This angered the French, who encouraged an unsuccessful assassination attempt against him. [14] Moreover, an Alid uprising took place in 912 at the hands of Ibn al-Rida, a descendant of 10th Imam Ali al-Hadi, in the nearby Damascene countryside against the Abbasid governor of Damascus. Long live Lebanon, Long live Lebanese unity and long live the Shiites. Lebanese Sunni have accused security forces of heavy-handed tactics By Lina Sinjab BBC News, Tripoli, Lebanon Sitting in a dark corner of a poorly furnished apartment in the Bab al-Tabbaneh. Aragona Capital > Uncategorized > lebanese sunni surnames > Uncategorized > lebanese sunni surnames [36], When the Safavids began converting Iran to Shiism by coercion and persuasion, they compensated the lack of established Shia fiqh in Iran by asking Shia clergies from Jabal Amel, Bahrain and Al-Ahsa to immigrate to Iran. Under the terms of an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, Shias are the only sect eligible for the post of Speaker of Parliament. Shia Twelvers in Lebanon refers to the Shia Muslim Twelver community with a significant presence all over Lebanon including the Mount Lebanon (Keserwan, Byblos), the North (Batroun), the South, the Beqaa, Baabda District coastal areas and Beirut. During that time, Husam ad-Din ruled over Toron, Banias and Chastel Neuf, giving him control of the road from Damascus to Tyre road which were of utmost importance in blocking any Frankish attempt at reconquest. Many Christians who fled their villages during the revolt were accommodated by Shia notables from Nabatieh and Bint Jbeil, an act that was appreciated by Christian clergies in letters. Vacillating Wildly From Dispiriting to Exhilarating. [12] best concrete pond sealer; mortal kombat 11 kronika fight; teacup poodle wyoming. The agreement restored their autonomy and granted a general amnesty for all Shiite rebels previously active against al-Jazzar and his forces, as well as a compensation for their losses after the battle of Yaroun, and granted the community the right to solve their internal problems without interference from the Ottoman governor. [30] [35][36], Through his 10,000-strong cavalry army, Nassif imposed control on all territories between Sidon and Safed and laid siege to Beirut, and had a crucial role in aiding Zahir's campaigns in Palestine and western Transjordan. [25] Bilad Beirut were similarly under the jurisdiction of a Shia muqaddam prior to 1407. The majority of Afghans are Sunni Muslims, while a minority are Shia Muslims. According to a CIA 2018 study, Lebanese Sunni Muslims constitute an estimated 30.6% of Lebanon's population. With the resurgence of Safavid power, the Harfush emirs began to seek an extension of their power to the strategic Machghara, in the southernmost reaches of the Bekaa valley, with a view of securing contact with their fellow Shiites in Jabal Amel. In the Bekaa valley, the Shiites joined the Druze in ravaging Zahle and Baalbek after being alienated by the Zahalni (townsfolk of Zahle). [75] A study done by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1985 put the numbers of Shias at 41% of the population (919,000 of 2,228,000). [36], In January 1926, the French High Commissioner officially recognized the Shia community as an "independent religious community," which was permitted to judge matters of personal status "according to the principles of the rite known by the name of Ja'fari. Some settled in the mountains of Lebanon, while others settled further north along the coastal ridges in Syria,[64] where the Alawites had earlier taken refugeand where their brethren in the Assassins were cultivating a fearsome reputation as they staved off armies of Crusaders and Sunnis alike for many years. In social terms, Tripoli and Tyre experienced a drastic upheaval with the crusader conquests. Sami Ramadan, a Sunni recruiter for Shiite Hezbollah's Saraya al-Muqawama, sits in a school in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley, Oct. 20, 2015. Lebanese Christians (95%), Shia Muslims (95%) and Sunni Muslims (86%) all . Lebanon's Sunni community is its third largest ethnopolitical group and comprises one-fifth of the total population. 35. [8], The Lebanese Sunni Muslims initially opposed the creation of the Lebanese state separated from Syria, where the majority of the population was also Sunni Muslim, and wanted the territory of present-day Lebanon to be incorporated within the so-called Greater Syria. Insurgency continued until the end of al-Jazzar's rule in 1804, and famously involved Faris al-Nassif, Nassif al-Nassar's son. [28] When civil strife and siege ignited between Mamluk governors in Damascus in 1497, (However, in a country that had last census in 1932, it is difficult to have correct population estimates) The Lebanese Sunni Muslims are highly concentrated in Lebanon's . [11] As the Muslim conquest of the Levant reached Lebanon, these Arab tribes received the most power which encouraged the non-Arabic-speaking population to adopt Arabic as the main language. According to a CIA 2018 study, Lebanese Sunni Muslims constitute an estimated 30.6% of Lebanon's population. [53], In addition, the Shia Twelvers in Lebanon have close links to the Syrian Shia Twelvers. Lebanese Sunni cleric 'killed by family members' Security forces find Sheikh Ahmad Rifai, known for his opposition to Hezbollah, with gunshot wounds Tripoli, Lebanon. You might also get some idea of which sect an Iraqi belongs to from his family name. On the coast, Tyre prospered under the Romans and was allowed to keep much of its independence as a "civitas foederata". Tiberias was visited in 880s by al-Ya'qubi who noted the presence of a Shia[13] tribe in the city, al-Ash'ari of Madh'hij who originally founded the Shia holy city of Qom in 703. A man named Omar, Abu Bakr, or Yazid would almost certainly be a Sunni, since these names correspond to the opponents of the first imams and the major villains of Shiite history. [43] While several Shia educational institutions were established before and at the beginning of the mandate period, they often ran out of support and funding which resulted in their abolishment. what the Shi'ites did for the Christians in the south will be cherished in our hearts for as long as Lebanon and the Christians remain. Al-Jazzar was initially on good terms with Nassif, but their alliance reached a bad point some time in 1781. During the revolt in 1938, the French requested British Royal Air Force support during their operations against insurgents in Bint Jbeil and South. Over the years, there have been numerous clashes between the Sunni and Alawi communities in Tripoli, particularly over the past 14 months since Syria's uprising began, as part of the Arab Spring that started in Tunisia. Lebanon-Syria: lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; in March 2021, Syria signed a contract with a Russian company for oil and gas exploration in a maritime area Lebanon claims as its own based on a 2011 map sent to the UN While governmental Sunni religious institutions and figures such as Abdel Malik Saadi, Rafi Rifii, and senior clerics of the Sunni Endowmentsan institution that was perceived to be infiltrated by sympathizers of Iraq's Muslim Brotherhoodplayed some role in mobilizing Arab Sunnis in the Anbar sit-ins, the institutional landscape has changed The Monthly is published on a quarterly basis by Information International, a leading Beirut-based research and consultancy firm. [47], Sayyid Abdul-Husayn Sharafeddine believed that the only way to ward off foreign political influence was to establish modern schools while maintaining Islamic teachings. Protect their lives and possessions as you do to your own. Trn y l tng hp nhng con l c nhiu anh ch em ca website soi cu hay chn chi nht trong ngy hm nay, con s cng ng u th n cng c nhiu ngi tham gia chi nht v gim dn theo tng con s. Politically and physically weakened, the Hamadas retained some of their tax farms in Mount Lebanon until 1771 when they were defeated and evicted by the northward expanding Shihab dynasty. south bend fire department news. [36], After violence subsided, Mehmed Fuad Pasha appointed the Shiite leader Ali al-As'ad to a commission to investigate the causes of the civil war, and put him in charge of maintaining order in eastern Lebanon, around Damascus and in Hauran. [23] Husam ad-Din also participated in the Battle of Hattin and was one of the commanders of Saladin's right flank during the Siege of Acre in 11891191, according to Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani. [28][34] This grande scurit that Nassif and Zahir imposed on the region best manifested when Ali Bey al-Kabir of Egypt requested Nassif's help to put down the rebellion at Cairo in 1773, or when he was sought by nomadic tribes in the Syro-Jordanian desert for help.[28]. [31] The 18th century French orientalist comte de Volney who visited Lebanon toward the late 1780s described Lebanese Shiites as a "distinct society",[32] and a 19th century British traveler observed that they were hated by Persians as Arabs, and by Turks and Arabs as Shiites, a predicament which was not shared by any other group.[31]. The group soon became widely vilified in the Islamic world for its armed campaigns across throughout the following decades, which included slaughtering Muslim pilgrims and sacking Mecca and Medinaand Salamiyah. Sunni Arab clansmen said that one their own killed Ali Chebli, the Hezbollah member whose procession was attacked, to avenge the killing of the Sunni boy, Hassan Ghosn, last year. [40] However, the French breakdown on Shiites left the latter resentful against them. [13] Najm ad-Din and his guerillas reportedly kidnapped and ambushed Mongols at night, and would often adopt pseudonyms to conceal their identities. [15] When the Fatimids conquered the region in 970, they quarrelled with the local Shiites. The Mamluks had previously attempted to subjugate the community through several unsuccessful military campaigns in the 1290s, and launched the last campaign after a band of Keserwanis attacked their retreating army after the Battle of Wadi al-Khaznadar. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. The last census in Lebanon in 1932 put the numbers of Sunnis at 22% of the population (178,100 of 791,700). Alessandria Masi/International Business Times [43], The primary outlet for discussions concerning educational reforms among Shia scholars was the monthly Shiite journal al-'Irfan, founded in 1909. Historian Max Weiss underlines how "sectarian claims were increasingly bound up with the institutionalization of Shi'i difference. In 996998, rebels in Tyre drove out the Fatimids for two years until the revolt was suppressed and the dissidents crushed. Hashem (Arabic origin) meaning "crusher". Forty years in the wilderness, away from the flesh-pots of Egypt, had entailed harsh habits, the counted date and the hoarded water; nor had a thousand years in the wilderness of a Christian world, where only the secret treasure was safe, encouraged display; but the world was altering, the desert was flowering; in stray corners here and there . [28], Further South, the pinnacle of Jabal Amel occurred at the hands of Nassif al-Nassar (c. 17491781) of Ali al-Saghirs during his alliance with Zahir al-Umar. The French supported several Maronite militia, especially those in Qlaiaa and Kfour by Nabatieh. According to al-Maqdisi, half of the population of the towns of Hunin and Qadas were Shia Muslims, while Shiites were the majority in Amman and Tiberias adjacent to Jabal Amel. (Yazid, for example, is said to have assassinated Hussein.) [14] According to al-Muhajir, this Shiite presence in the Bekaa was later reinforced by migrants from Mount Lebanon following the Mamluk and Ottoman campaigns against Shiites in the 14th and 17th centuries respectively, as well as migrants from the Shia villages in Anti-Lebanon Mountains, where the Harfush dynasty originated from. During Saladin's siege of Beaufort castle, military units from Jabal Amel, likely those of Husam ad-Din Bishara, came to his aid and replaced his forces as he marched to repel a crusader invasion of Acre. [16] And more recently, in 2018 the CIA World Factbook estimated that Sunni Muslims constitute 30.6%[19] of Lebanon's population.[20][21]. However, in a country that had last census in 1932, it is difficult to have correct population estimates. [52] The seven villages are Qadas, Nabi Yusha, al-Malikiyya, Hunin, Tarbikha, Abil al-Qamh, and Saliha. Some of the influencers of Lebanese culture are Phoenicians, Assyrians, Romans, Ottoman Turks, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, and the French. A very pious Sunni man in Iraqmay wear a long beard, and a pious Sunni woman might cover her face except for the eyes. Later in 1921, this period of unrest ended with a political amnesty offered by the French mandate authorities for all Shiites who had joined the riots, with the intention to bind the Shia community in the South of Lebanon to the new Mandate state. Modern Muslims in Lebanon thus do not seem to have a significant genetic influence from the Crusaders, who probably introduced this common Western European marker to the extant Christian populations of the Levant when they were active in the region from 1096 until around the turn of the 14th century. Afghanistan is not considered Arab. Hezbollah denies any role in killing Hariri, Lebanon's main. Since 2011, Lebanon has taken in 1.5 million Syrian refugees. [68] Though they are nominally counted among the 18 officially-recognised sects under modern Lebanese law,[69] they currently have no representation in state functions[70] and continue to lack personal status laws for their sect, which has led to increased conversions to established sects to avoid the perpetual inconveniences this produces. [77] Starting in 1921 from a mere 17.2% (104,947 of 609,069), the population almost doubled to 32% by 1988 (1,325,000 of 4,044,784), with a total increase of around 1,200%,[77] the highest of any major community. But surnames arent reliable either, given the number of intermarriages that occurred under Baath party rule. [42] Shia leaders and religious clergy supported educational reforms in order to improve the social and political marginalization of the Shia community and increase their involvement in the newly born nation-state of Lebanon. Sharafeddine understood that sectarian hostility only gave purpose for French military presence in the area, and thus called for the protection of the Christians in the conference of Wadi al-Hujayr on 24 April 1920. Theo nh th nghim ca chng ti th chi nui l hay theo chu k bao gi cng c c xc sut chin thng cao hn cch chi theo ngy chnh v th m chng ti khuyn cc bn nn theo chi phng php nui c c an ton v bn vng hn nh. Under the Ottomans, Local Shias often came into conflict with Ottoman-assigned governors of Tripoli, Sidon and Damascus, who derogatorily referred to them as Qizilbash in their documents as a means to delegitimize them or justify punitive campaigns against them. The Mamluks punished the town of Machghara in 1364 for disobedience and religious dissidence. Certain religious rituals are another giveaway. Due to official persecution by the Sunni Zengid dynasty that stoked escalating sectarian clashes with Sunnis, many Isma'ilis in the regions of Damascus and Aleppo are said to have fled west during the 12th century. The Shiites resented the Shihabi-Egyptian alliance, and assumed a central role in the efforts of expelling the Egyptians from Syria. The Alawites of the Levant were oppressed by the Sunni Ottoman Empire, but gained power and influence when the French recruited Alawites as soldiers during the French mandate of Syria. Haplogroup J2 is also a significant marker in throughout Lebanon (27%). Although it can be considered offensive nowadays, it was a way to distinguish the uniqueness and unity of the community. shia surnames in pakistan. Khan, etc. Genealogical DNA testing has shown that 21.3% of Lebanese Muslims (non-Druze) belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup J1 compared with non-Muslims at 17%. [36] When the Great Syrian Revolt broke out in 1925, rebellion once again broke out but this time it was ineffective. On the other hand, Tyre successfully resisted a major siege in 1112 with the help of Toghtekin and infantry from Jabal Amel, but fell to the Venetian Crusade in 1124. However, a small minority of them are Alawites and Ismaili. These genetic studies show us there is no significant differences between the Muslims and non-Muslims of Lebanon. In 1938, he built two schools, one for girls and another for boys, at his own expense.

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